Cyprus and its constitutional and other legal problems

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Cyprus and its constitutional and other legal problems

PREFACE

In this second edition of this book another Part was added, Part XII, dealing with the evolution of the Cyprus intercommunal talks. To the already existing Appendices nine more were added, setting-out the various proposals made for the solution of the Cyprus problem and certain statements and observations in connection therewith.


The intercommunal talks which were recessed in June 1979 was not found possible to be reactivated until the time when these lines are being written in spite of the resolutions of the General Assembly and the Security Council of the United Nations in this respect and the persistent efforts of the Secretary-General Dr. Waldheim in this direction. lt is hoped that wiser thoughts will prevail and that the intercommunal talks will be resumed in an effort to give a fair and viable solution to the Cyprus problem and relieve its most suffering people from all its afflictions.

Nicosia, 2nd of April, 1980.

CRITON G. TORNARITIS

ABBREVIATIONS

IA.C. Appeal Cases
A.J.I.L. American Journal International Law
B.Y.I.L. British Yearbook International Law
C.L.R. Cyprus Law Reports
K.B. Kings Bench
P.C.I.J. Publications of the Permanent Court of International Justice
Q.B. Queens Bench
R.I.A.A. Reports of International Arbitral Awards
R.S.C.C. Reports of the Supreme Constitutional Court
S.I. Statutory Instrument
S.R.O. Rev. 1904 Statutory Rules and Orders Revised 1904 (2nd edition)
S.R.O. Rev. 1948 Statutory Rules and Orders Revised 1948 (3rd edition)

SHORT GEOGRAPHICAL, GEOLOGICAL,
DEMOGRAPHIC AND HISTORICAL SURVEY

Cyprus, the third largest island, after Sicily and Sardinia, in the Mediterranean, lies at its eastern basin between lat. 300. 34′ and 350. 42′N. and long. 32o.16′ and 34o.6E. at the cross-road of routes from east to west and from north to south. Its greatest length from the coast of Paphos in the west to the Cape St. Andreas in the east is about 150 miles, its greatest breadth from Cape Kormakitis in the north to Cape Gata in the south is 60 miles and its whole area is 3,572 square miles (9,251 square kilometres) and is similar in size to that of Lebanon or of Norfolk and Suffolk combined in the United Kingdom or of Puerto Rico.

Cyprus is in close proximity to three continents.

The distances from the neighboring countries are 43 miles from Cape Anamur in Asia Minor to Cape Kormakitis, on the north of Cyprus, 76 miles from Cape St. Andreas in the east to Syria, 255 miles from Port Said to Limassol and 270 miles from Cape Akamas in the west to Rhodes.
Its shape has been described as oblong and parallel to the equator, like that of Crete, being the opposite of Rhodes, which is almost upright and vertical to the equators whilst another description represents Cyprus as having the shape of a wheel-barrow being pushed along, seen from the side. Its handles are represented by the long Karpass peninsula and the wheels by the Akrotiri peninsula.

The shape of Cyprus is determined by two parallel mountain ranges stretching from the west to the east. The northern range, the Kyrenia or Pendadaktylos range, with its very impressive jagged outline runs at a distance of a few miles from the coast for about sixty miles from above Vassilia-Lapithos on the west to Kantara castle on the east wherefrom it falls away along the Karpass peninsula, its highest peak being about 3,357 ft. at Kyparissovouno. The other range is that of Troodos to the south, the massif of which consists of very old rock its highest point, Chionistra, having a height of 6,403 ft. These mountains are mostly covered with forest trees mainly of the Aleppo pine and black pine and a variety of bushes. In the spring wild flowers of a variety of colors render the scenery more beautiful.

Between these two ranges lies the Messaoria plain (that is to say between the mountains) which has a breadth of 12 to 15 miles and extends from Morphou Bay, in the west, to the Famagusta Bay, in the east. The Messaoria plain is very fertile producing in most seasons fine crops of grain. But its cultivation depends almost entirely on the rainfall which usually occurs between the months of October and March but in years of drought the plain appears very arid.

Apart from those two mountain ranges there exist also an isolated mountain far to the east, the Stavrovouni, having a height of 2,258 feet from which on clear days Lebanon may be discernible.

From a geological point of view Cyprus is comparatively young dating back to about 150 million years. The oldest rocks are attributed to the Cretaceous of early Eocene period. They probably underlie the whole island. The Troodos mountain-range consists of igneous rocks (mainly plutonic, dyke and volcanic rocks) on top of which there is series of sedimentary rocks ranging from the Upper Cretaceous to the Pleistocene period. Regarding the Kyrenia range on the other hand its core consists mainly of highly tectonised metamorphosed limestones and dolomite forming blocks on top of the other.